Since maintenance costs are allocated to administration and administration cost is allocated to maintenance — things get interesting. You will need to determine the TOTAL cost being allocated to both the Administration reciprocal method and Maintenance Departments first. The costs allocated to S1 and S2 are termed “reciprocated costs.” They are greater than the direct costs of S1 and S2 because costs are reallocated back to S1 and S2.

- To better understand how reciprocal teaching works in the classroom, consider this example, which focuses on “The Very Hungry Caterpillar” by Eric Carle.
- You will need to determine the TOTAL cost being allocated to both the Administration and Maintenance Departments first.
- The disadvantages of the reciprocal method are that it is complicated, and may not justify the effort required for additional accuracy.
- In the reciprocal method, the relationship between the service departments is recognized.
- A circular reference is when the formula in a cell refers to other cells that in turn refer to the original cell.
- The two service departments serve not only to producing departments but also to each other.

When studying a non-fiction text, students should preview the text’s title, subheadings, bold print, and visuals such as maps, tables, and diagrams. When studying a work of fiction, students should look at the book’s cover, title, and illustrations. In both instances, the students should look for clues that help them predict the author’s purpose and the topic of the text.

If we want to divide the first fraction by the second fraction, the result can be found by multiplying the first fraction with the reciprocal of the second fraction. From the above examples, we can see that the multiplication of a number to its reciprocal gives 1. Hence, we can say that the number is multiplied by its reciprocal, we get 1. The reciprocal of a decimal is the same as it is for a number defined by one over the number. Now, you get the fraction and do the same operation for finding the reciprocal by flipping the numerator and the denominator.

## Solved Examples

The reciprocal method fully recognizes the other service departments by allowing reallocations back to each service department. As such, it’s more difficult to calculate but also more accurate than the other methods. The allocation of service department costs is incomplete if the method used for cost allocation ignores or does not give full recognition to interdepartmental services. Interdepartmental services are services that two or more service departments provide to each other. For example, consider a case where service department A provides service to service department B, and in turn, department B provides service to department A.

The Step-down Method allocates costs to both operational departments and service centers. It requires simultaneous equations, a coefficient matrix, matrix inversion, and matrix multiplication to get the cost allocations. No one wants to set up a spreadsheet with many rounds of cost allocations. Excel’s iterative calculation option makes the https://personal-accounting.org/ much easier and quicker. The reciprocal method of cost allocation uses simultaneous equations to capture and allocate 100% of service center (interdepartmental) costs. The disadvantages of the reciprocal method are that it is complicated, and may not justify the effort required for additional accuracy.

## Calculating Fully Reciprocated Costs

Normally, Excel can’t automatically calculate a formula like that because it would by default keep recalculating indefinitely—almost like a basic go-to loop in programming that never ends. The iterative calculation option lets you put a limit on the number of times Excel recalculates the formula. Reciprocal teaching is an instructional technique aimed at developing reading comprehension skills by gradually empowering the students to take on the role of the teacher. Reciprocal teaching makes students active participants in the lesson. It also helps students transition from guided to independent readers and reinforces strategies for comprehending the meaning of a text. Although the complexity issue could be overcome by use of computers, there is no evidence that computers have made the reciprocal method more popular.

## 10.4 The Reciprocal Method

An allocation base for custodial services could be square footage of each department. An allocation base for human resources could be the number of employees in each department. In the reciprocal method, the relationship between the service

departments is recognized.

The assembly department allocation equals 71 percent of $90,679, which is $64,382. The painting department allocation equals 19 percent of $90,679, which is $17,229. Since 13 percent of human resources service costs are allocated to custodial services, another service department, those costs will have to be re-allocated to the production departments. The same applies to the 10 percent of custodial services costs that are allocated to human resources. Therefore, it is necessary to calculate fully reciprocated costs for each service department. In a manufacturing business, one or more service departments often provide services to one or more production departments and also to other service departments.

Using reciprocal teaching, improvements have been noted in student reading comprehension in as little as three months and maintained for up to one year. The Highland Park School District in Michigan saw gains of nearly 20% with fourth-grade students and improvement across the board for all students, K-12. To find the reciprocal of the mixed fraction, first, convert the mixed fraction into the improper fraction, and then take the reciprocal of the improper fraction. The first step is to convert a mixed fraction into an improper fraction. The word reciprocal came from the Latin word “reciprocus” meaning “returning”.

Painting occupies 800 square feet, accounting for 19 percent of the square footage used to allocate costs. Human resources occupies 400 square feet, accounting for 10 percent of the square footage used to allocate costs. Since maintenance costs are allocated to

administration and administration cost is allocated to maintenance

— things get interesting.

Hence, it returns its original value, if we take the reciprocal of an inverted number. In this article, we are going to learn the definition of reciprocal, how to find the reciprocal of numbers, fractions and decimals with many examples. In Maths, reciprocal is simply defined as the inverse of a value or a number. Now, if we multiply a number by its reciprocal, it gives a value equal to 1. With the iterative calculation option enabled, Excel will allow circular references in formulas. A circular reference is when the formula in a cell refers to other cells that in turn refer to the original cell.

In a simple example with two service departments and two operating departments, only four simultaneous equations are needed and can be easily solved by hand. When more than two service departments are involved, accounting textbooks recommend the use of simultaneous equations, matrix algebra, and a computer to solve the equations. Unfortunately, students and financial managers find the use of matrix algebra to be quite a challenge. A technique using simultaneous equations to allocate a manufacturer’s service departments’ costs to both other service departments and to production departments. Total maintenance cost can be calculated as

$8,000 department cost + $1,429 (7,145 x 20%) allocated from

administration for a total of $9,429.

Using the data above, fully reciprocated human resources costs equal $150,000 + (fully reciprocated custodial services costs x 10 percent). Fully reciprocated custodial services costs equal $70,000 + (fully reciprocated human resources costs x 13 percent). Using this information, FRHRC and FRCSC can be calculated algebraically.